COVID-19 “Long Haulers”
Most people who have coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) recover completely within a few weeks. But some people — even those who had mild versions of the disease — continue to experience symptoms after their initial recovery.
These people sometimes describe themselves as “long haulers” and the conditions have been called post-COVID-19 syndrome or “long COVID-19.” These health issues are sometimes called post-COVID-19 conditions. They’re generally considered to be effects of COVID-19 that persist for more than four weeks after you’ve been diagnosed with the COVID-19 virus.
Older people and individuals with many serious medical conditions are the most likely to experience lingering COVID-19 symptoms. However, even young, otherwise healthy, people can feel unwell for weeks to months after infection. Common signs and symptoms that linger over time include:
- Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
- Chest or Joint pain
- Memory, concentration or sleep problems
- Muscle pain or headache
- Fast or pounding heartbeat
- Loss of smell or taste
- Depression or anxiety
- Dizziness when you stand
- Worsened symptoms after physical or mental activities
Organ damage caused by COVID-19
Although COVID-19 is seen as a disease that primarily affects the lungs, it can also damage many other organs, including the heart, kidneys, and brain. Organ damage may lead to health complications that linger after COVID-19 illness. In some people, lasting health effects may include:
- Long-term breathing problems,
- Heart complications,
- Chronic kidney impairment,
- Guillain-Barre syndrome — a condition that causes temporary paralysis.
Some adults and children experience multisystem inflammatory syndrome after they have had COVID-19. In this condition, some organs and tissues may become severely inflamed.
Blood clots and blood vessel problems
COVID-19 can make blood cells more likely to clump up and form clots. While large clots can cause heart attacks and strokes, much of the heart damage caused by COVID-19 is believed to stem from very small clots that block tiny blood vessels (capillaries) in the heart muscle.
Other parts of the body affected by blood clots include the lungs, legs, liver, and kidneys. COVID-19 can also weaken blood vessels and cause them to leak, which contributes to potentially long-lasting problems with the liver and kidneys.
Problems with mood and fatigue
People who have severe symptoms of COVID-19 often have to be treated in a hospital’s intensive care unit, with mechanical assistance such as ventilators to breathe. Simply surviving this experience can make a person more likely to later develop post-traumatic stress syndrome, depression, and anxiety.
Since it’s difficult to predict long-term outcomes from the new COVID-19 virus, scientists are looking at the long-term effects seen in related viruses, such as the virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
Many people who have recovered from SARS have gone on to develop chronic fatigue syndrome, a complex disorder characterized by extreme fatigue that worsens with physical or mental activity, but doesn’t improve with rest. The same may be true for people who have had COVID-19.
Many long-term COVID-19 effects still unknown
Much is still unknown about how COVID-19 will affect people over time, but research is ongoing. It is yet to be determined whether or not vaccines protect against long COVID, but several studies suggest that getting a COVID vaccine can reduce — but not eliminate — the risk of long-term symptoms. Researchers recommend that doctors closely monitor people who have had COVID-19.
Many large medical centers are opening specialized clinics to provide care for people who have persistent symptoms or related illnesses after they recover from COVID-19. They are referred to as “post-COVID clinics.” Support groups are available as well.
It’s important to remember that most people who have COVID-19 recover quickly. But, the potentially long-lasting problems from COVID-19 make it even more important to reduce the spread of COVID-19 by following precautions. Precautions include wearing masks, social distancing, avoiding crowds, getting vaccinated, and keeping hands clean.
Remember to stay safe, as our current subvariant of COVID is virulent. If you have symptoms, test (and test again); it is not uncommon to have multiple negative tests before having a test come up positive (I have seen it personally). If positive, call our office at (707) 938-1255 immediately as you may be a candidate for an antiviral medication (i.e. — Paxlovid).
The Mayo Clinic served as the main reference point for this newsletter.